The bioeconomy as a transformation concept towards sustainability has gained key importance in science and politics. It is regarded as an important component for the transformation of modern societies into a circular economy based on renewable resources. This anthology takes up the political and scientific embedding of the bioeconomy and focuses on the interface between future shaping and sustainability shaping. Key topics include sustainability assessment from an economic and ecological perspective, but also the issue of the framework conditions and control concepts under which a sustainable bioeconomy can succeed. The individual contributions of the anthology cover disciplines such as social and economic sciences, agricultural and environmental sciences as well as modelling, philosophy of technology and innovation economics. This interdisciplinarity is reflected in the methodological diversity of the contributions, which are based, for example, on document analyses, computer simulations, environmental and sustainability assessments, expert interviews, or actor and network analyses.